From one vicinity to another, from one u. S . To some other, the behavior of giving provides in positive instances range. In Belgium, kids get hold of gifts particularly at saint-Nicolas, whereas in France they are alternatively celebrated at Christmas and in Italy on the epiphany. From one family to some other, practices additionally fluctuate. But whatever the circle of relatives or the place, we discover this dependency of making items.
Why will we give presents, especially at Christmas? It’s far a query this is hardly ever requested, as this practice is rooted in cultural habits. Making items is indeed a completely antique exercise. For example, mass, an ethnologist of the early 20th century, studied the exercise of giving in the so-known as archaic societies: the more of latest Zealand and the wails, the Amerindian humans of Canada. Via his research, he highlighted the reality that the present turned into an “obligatory voluntary trade”. The present is a social fact: there may be no gift without the only to whom it’s miles meant accepts it, without receiving it. And to receive additionally obliges to render. This “gift-reception-rendering” procedure creates an exchange and this trade appears to be critical to social existence. In keeping with Mauss’s research, the refusal to give, receive or render always leads to warfare or, anyhow, to the breakdown of the links among the men and women involved. The practice of presents hence seems first of all as a social exercise that creates and manifests links of alternate and reciprocity.
In a more individual or mental technique, the gift can also take on very extraordinary meanings. Anyways, he says something of the one who offers it in addition to of the only who gets it. Unfortunately, the first motive that involves thoughts is an attachment to the opposite. Within the private sphere, supplying a gift marks the emotional bond that binds the man or woman to whom she gives a gift. But as psychologists point out, the gift isn’t only a mark of love, it is also most customarily a call for romance, since, most usually, we implicitly anticipate something in going back. Within the family sphere, it is also pointed out that presents are regularly a manner of compensating, of clearing oneself, of seeing oneself forgiven: the figure who feels responsible for being too little present to his own family because of his paintings will tend to make extra crucial gifts, the daddy who sees his youngsters simplest one weekend out of two due to a separation will do the identical, the associate who feels a little responsible of this or that vis-a-vis the alternative will try to “repair” by a present. Items consequently additionally have other functions in the context of affective and family relationships.
In our regions, Christmas items are in particular associated with an own family putting. It’s far at Christmas that the circle of relatives meets and, in this occasion, presents are exchanged. This family collecting of Christmas is frequently seen as a must, even in households where relationships are disturbing or even frigid, similar to the remaining bulwark of own family harmony. In addition, the greater or less obliged assembly of the protagonists of an own family wherein relations are hard, accentuates the tensions. The french psychoanalyst Samuel lepas tier remarked that this change of gifts takes location in a context in which one tries to replace the myth of own family concord, regularly undermined. No surprise then that gifts are assigned parallel missions: to present the phantasm of concord, to settle accounts with one or the opposite, to be forgiven. Gifts, an excellent enterprise deal the french psychoanalyst Samuel lepas tier remarked that this alternate of presents takes place in a context wherein one attempts to replace the parable of the circle of relatives concord, frequently undermined. No marvel then that gifts are assigned parallel missions: to offer the phantasm of concord, to settle bills with one or the alternative, to be forgiven. Gifts, an awesome commercial enterprise deal the french psychoanalyst Samuel lepas tier remarked that this alternate of gifts takes vicinity in a context in which one tries to replace the myth of family harmony, frequently undermined. No marvel then that items are assigned parallel missions: to provide the phantasm of harmony, to settle debts with one or the alternative, to be forgiven.
Items, an awesome enterprise deal
The industrial region is supported, of the path, on a lot of these motivations extra or less unconscious to inspire buy. According to a latest examine by the croc, purchasers spend a median of 82 € on the purchase of Christmas items, plus expenses related to sports. In spite of the crisis, these expenditures appear to stay pretty strong, considering they have got gone from mean finances of 137 € in 2005 to 133 € in 2009 (gifts and activities). It could consequently be said that Christmas items are a crucial economic region.
However, items do no longer usually make that satisfied, and the wide variety of items positioned lower back on sale on eBay the next day keeps growing. It isn’t constantly clean to fly and find what’s going to please the alternative, specifically whilst searching like a real remaining-minute run in crowded shops of consumers keen to get it over. This might be the reason for the growing achievement of gift certificates and vouchers of a wide variety that have elevated and diversified in latest years. In step with a french survey through the audit firm Deloitte [ii], 45% of french humans need to receive these credit score notes that are exchanged for items. “with present certificate, humans are positive they’ll now not be upset through what they’re going to provide, because they will be loose to shop for something they like.” [Iii] in keeping with the croc’s Belgium, 33% of items offered to adults are gift vouchers, for forty% of cosmetics and perfume. The percentage of gift vouchers is best increasing year by using year. This shift in the direction of gift certificate additionally exhibits the emergence of extra selfish needs, related to the evolution of a more individualistic society, consistent with the psychoanalyst Pascale hébel, director of the intake branch of the studies middle for the look at & observation of residing conditions (credit [iv]). “with a gift certificates, we hide the too cloth issue of the gift, we dematerialize the gift of money. This sort of present is spreading, with the multiplication of ‘lists’ of %, retirement or anniversary, designed on the model of the marriage lists. Visitors purchase an item, the fee of which is public, and the recipient is loose to appreciate this preference or convert their monetary hobby. In preference to ending up with twenty carafes, he will favor choosing an armchair. The relationship to gifts has moved,
Gift vouchers are real alternatives to the chore that the purchase of Christmas gifts represents for some, and this additionally avoids a sure amount of waste, due to the fact that all people do now not yet take the step of putting on sale the gift received but who do not like, replica or seem superfluous. Different more modern and socially devoted initiatives are also seeking to fill the area of interest of items, particularly for the vacation season. The first became installation by means of the NGO Oxfam. Beneath the name “Oxfam semble” [vi], the association additionally offers a form of present certificates. But right here the one to whom the check is obtainable isn’t the recipient of the gift. This is quite the precept of messages which can be occasionally observed on wedding ceremony invites, while the destiny spouses advocate transforming the plants or the gift they intended to shop for into a price of money for a social mission right here or somewhere else. Right here you may show to whomever you would love to please that the cash has been paid for a development mission in the third world. For 15 €, you can tell him that he has just provided (two are in this example to offer) rabbits to a Congolese own family, for 33 € that he participates in the formation of a farmer, and for 146 € a family will now have a cow, a gift a good deal greater beneficial than a system, as the presentation of the challenge commentary. We can say that it’s far a citizen and unity manner to replace the dependency of creating gifts.
Every other practice may also be developed, mainly inside the circle of relatives universe, if one wants to positioned a certain brake on the overconsumption and the monetarization of the practices of items and to regain the feel of the present. Right here we offer loose presents, either within the shape of a promise of the provider or within the form of a present made by using ourselves, in step with his precise talents. In each instance, one may additionally deliver more self-guarantee than while one places one’s hand inside the wallet. The dad may be able to provide his son a treasure hunt, a voucher for the construction of a shack inside the lawn or a voucher to educate him to play chess. To his wife, he could make the prevailing of a breakfast in bed and his mother-in-regulation to introduce him to the exercise of e-mail. We also can provide the era of young mother and father to maintain their kids for a whole weekend, a story they can take a romantic weekend. In the variety of presents made via yourself and consistent with the abilities, one will locate the knitted sweater via hand, the jams or an album taking pix of all the generations of the family. The possibilities are infinite.